Learning how to hold a spatial representation in the “mind’s eye” can be challenging for young learners. They build proficiency in this skill when teachers provide concrete and pictorial experiences with spatial transformations, such as cutting an item in half, flipping it upside down, or rotating it to make it “fit.”

© Erikson Institute’s Early Math Collaborative. Reprinted from Big Ideas of Early Mathematics: What Teachers of Young Children Need to Know (2014), Pearson Education.

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